Kazan is the capital of the Republic of Tatarstan. Kazan lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in European Russia, about 715km east from Moscow. Kazan is one of the largest religious, economic, political, scientific, educational, cultural and sports centers in Russia. In 2009 it was chosen as the “sports capital of Russia” and it still is referred to as such. In 2011, the European Weightlifting Championships were held here. The city hosted the 2013 Summer Universiade, 2014 World Fencing Championships, the 2015 World Aquatics Championships, it was one of the host cities for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and In 2018, Kazan became one of the cities where the 2018 FIFA World Cup was held.
In 2015, 2.1 million tourists visited Kazan, a 20% increase in comparison with 2014. In 2015 1.5 million tourists visited the Kazan Kremlin, which was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2005.
According to the official version adopted today, the city was founded more than 1000 years ago. The estimated date of the urban settlement on the site of Kazan is 1004-1005 years. In the 13—14th centuries, Kazan became an important trade and political center within The Golden Horde. In 1552 As a result of the Siege of Kazan, Russia under Ivan the Terrible conquered the city and in 1556 building of a new white stone Kremlin has begun.
Kazan was largely destroyed in 1774 as a result of the Pugachev revolt (1774–1776), but the city, formerly largely of timber construction, was soon afterwards rebuilt, using stone and according to a grid pattern plan, during the reign of Catherine the Great. Catherine also decreed that mosques could again be built in Kazan, the first being Marjani Mosque. At the beginning of the 19th century Kazan State University and printing press were founded by Alexander I. It became an important center for Oriental Studies in Russia.
In the late 1980s and in the 1990s, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kazan became the center of Tatar culture and identity once again. Since 2000 the city has been undergoing a total renovation. The historical center – including the Kremlin – has been rebuilt. Kazan celebrated its millennium in 2005, during the celebrations one of the largest mosque in Russia, Qolsharif, was dedicated in the Kazan Kremlin, the holiest copy of Our Lady of Kazan was returned to the city, the Millennium Bridge was inaugurated and the Kazan Metro began operation. For the preparations to the 2013 Universiade, Kazan began even more renovation by modernizing its airport, fixing the streets, enhancing public transport, and adopting Russian, English, and Tatar languages in all transportation, large stores, and shopping centers.